PBM Research

The following research articles and publications document the science behind PhotoBioModulation (PBM) and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) red light therapy. Many of these sources outline studies into specific wavelengths of PBM Light therapy.

    • Whelan HT et al. NASA light-emitting diodes for the prevention of oral mucositis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2002 Dec;20(6):319-24. doi: 10.1089/104454702320901107. PMID: 12513918. https://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=dentistry_fac
    • Leal Junior EC et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to postexercise recovery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Aug;40(8):524-32. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2010.3294. PMID: 20436237. https://www.jospt.org/doi/pdf/10.2519/jospt.2010.3294
    • Effectiveness of acupuncture for temporomandibular disorders and associated symptoms. https://www.scielo.br/j/rdor/a/qLJKt39L7JBNMpQRzLTmLLJ/?lang=en
    • file:///C:/Users/gs/AppData/Local/Temp/Effectiveness_of_acupuncture_for_temporomandibular.pdf

      Wavelength-Specific Articles

        • Mechanisms and Applications of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of PhotoBioModulation
          • Wound healing, arthritis, muscle recovery, lung inflammation, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, autoimmune diseases, abdominal fat and Achilles tendinopathy, thyroiditis, psoriasis have all been shown to accept PBM treatment well, particularly the 850nm wavelength with regards to muscle preconditioning and better athletic performance.
          • In this clinical trial, the effect of intraoral low level laser with a wavelength of 940nm and an energy density of 10 J/cm2 was tested in one session after the surgical operation of the mandibular impacted third molar. The results reveal that LLLT has an alleviate effect on post-surgical pain. Further studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effectiveness of LLLT...
        • Effects of 405-, 532-, 650-, and 940-nm wavelengths of low-level laser therapies on orthodontic tooth movement in rats (file:///C:/Users/gs/Downloads/Effects_of_405-_532-_650-_and_940-nm_wavelengths_o%20(1).pdf)

        The results of this study show that LLLT with 650 -nm wavelengths increases orthodontic tooth movement more than 405-nm, 532-nm, and 940-nm LLLTs. The 940-nm and 650-nm LLLT's also increase the bone area between the roots by more than 405-nm and 532-nm wavelengths.

        Acupuncture References:

        • Huang, W., Pach, D., Napadow, V., Park, K., Long, X., Neumann, J., Maeda, Y., Nierhaus, T., Liang, F., & Witt, C. M. (2012). Characterizing acupuncture stimuli using brain imaging with FMRI--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. PloS one7(4), e32960. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032960
        • Langevin, H. M., & Yandow, J. A. (2002). Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. The Anatomical record269(6), 257–265. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.10185