The following research articles and publications document the science behind PhotoBioModulation (PBM) and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) red light therapy. Many of these sources outline studies into specific wavelengths of PBM Light therapy.
- Light Technology Successfully Reduces Cancer Patients' Side Effects from Radiation & Chemotherapy - National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA
- Low Level Laser Therapy in Dentistry - Grace Sun, DDS & Jan Tunér
- The Use of Nasa Light Emitting Diode Near-Infrared Technology for Biostimulation - Medical College of Wisconsin
- Photobiomodulation: Lasers vs Light Emitting Diodes - University of Helsinki, Harvard University, Michael Hamblin
- The Nuts and Bolts of Low Level Laser (Light) Therapy - National Institutes of Health, Harvard MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital
- Rochkind, S. (2009). Phototherapy in peripheral nerve regeneration: From basic science to clinical study, Neurosurgical Focus FOC, 26(2), E8. Retrieved Oct 24, 2021, from https://thejns.org/focus/view/journals/neurosurg-focus/26/2/article-pE8.xml
- Whelan HT et al. NASA light-emitting diodes for the prevention of oral mucositis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2002 Dec;20(6):319-24. doi: 10.1089/104454702320901107. PMID: 12513918. https://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=dentistry_fac
- Leal Junior EC et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to postexercise recovery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Aug;40(8):524-32. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2010.3294. PMID: 20436237. https://www.jospt.org/doi/pdf/10.2519/jospt.2010.3294
- Effectiveness of acupuncture for temporomandibular disorders and associated symptoms. https://www.scielo.br/j/rdor/a/qLJKt39L7JBNMpQRzLTmLLJ/?lang=en
- Effect of 660/850nm LED on the Microcirculation of the Foot: Neurovascular Biphasic Reflex
- Phototherapy can be used to stimulate the healing of chronic ulcers of the lower limb, as it affects healing cells and neurons. In this way the study has sought to know if the heat stimulus of the 660/850nm contact LED is sufficient to trigger the response in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system of normal volunteers.
- PhotoBioModulation (660nm) Therapy Reduces Oxidative Stress and Induces BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus
- PBMT inhibits hippocampal damage induced by oxidative stress and increases the expression of BDNF, which can be used as an alternative to treat a variety of related disorders that lead to nerve damage. Activation and redox homeostasis in neuronal cells may be a notable mechanism of the 660nm PBMT-mediated photobioreactivity.
- Mechanisms and Applications of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of PhotoBioModulation
- Wound healing, arthritis, muscle recovery, lung inflammation, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, autoimmune diseases, abdominal fat and Achilles tendinopathy, thyroiditis, psoriasis have all been shown to accept PBM treatment well, particularly the 850nm wavelength with regards to muscle preconditioning and better athletic performance.
- Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Therapy at 940 nm on Inflammation Root Resorption in Rats
- The effects of LED therapy at 940nm on periodontal healing, inflammatory ell infiltration and root resorption were analyzed in an experimental model of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. The results suggest that LED therapy improved periodontal tissue repair and decreased inflammation and root resorption after the application of orthodontic force.
- Low Level Laser Therapy Using Laser Diode (LED) 940nm in the Mandibular Impacted Third Molar Surgery: Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
- In this clinical trial, the effect of intraoral low level laser with a wavelength of 940nm and an energy density of 10 J/cm2 was tested in one session after the surgical operation of the mandibular impacted third molar. The results reveal that LLLT has an alleviate effect on post-surgical pain. Further studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effectiveness of LLLT...
- Intraoral Photobiomodulation-Induced Orthodontic Tooth Alignment: A Preliminary Study
- Under the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that intraoral PBM (850nm) could be used to decrease anterior alignment treatment time, which could consequently decrease full orthodontic treatment time. Further research in the form of a large, randomized trial is needed.
- Effects of 940nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) on Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats
- The 940nm wavelength has been shown to improve nerve tissue regeneration as well as reducing edema and fibrodegeneration.
- Effects of 405-, 532-, 650-, and 940-nm wavelengths of low-level laser therapies on orthodontic tooth movement in rats (file:///C:/Users/gs/Downloads/Effects_of_405-_532-_650-_and_940-nm_wavelengths_o%20(1).pdf)
The results of this study show that LLLT with 650 -nm wavelengths increases orthodontic tooth movement more than 405-nm, 532-nm, and 940-nm LLLTs. The 940-nm and 650-nm LLLT's also increase the bone area between the roots by more than 405-nm and 532-nm wavelengths.
- Huang, W., Pach, D., Napadow, V., Park, K., Long, X., Neumann, J., Maeda, Y., Nierhaus, T., Liang, F., & Witt, C. M. (2012). Characterizing acupuncture stimuli using brain imaging with FMRI--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. PloS one, 7(4), e32960. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032960
- Langevin, H. M., & Yandow, J. A. (2002). Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. The Anatomical record, 269(6), 257–265. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.10185